|Robert Sengstacke Abbott||Francis Bellamy||Samuel L Clemens||Carlo Collodi|
|Sir Arthur Conan Doyle||Timothy Fortune||Edward Gibbon||Voltaire|
|John H Johnson||Rudyard Kipling||Sir Walter Scott||Jonathan Swift|
|Leo Tolstoi||Lewis Wallace||Booker T Washington|
Booker T. Washington recalled his childhood in his autobiography, Up From Slavery. He was born in 1856 on the Burroughs tobacco farm which, despite its small size, he always referred to as a "plantation." His mother was a cook, his father a white man from a nearby farm. "The early years of my life, which were spent in the little cabin," he wrote, "were not very different from those of other slaves."
He went to school in Franklin County - not as a student, but to carry books for one of James Burroughs's daughters. It was illegal to educate slaves. "I had the feeling that to get into a schoolhouse and study would be about the same as getting into paradise," he wrote. In April 1865 the Emancipation Proclamation was read to joyful slaves in front of the Burroughs home. Booker's family soon left to join his stepfather in Malden, West Virginia. The young boy took a job in a salt mine that began at 4 a.m. so he could attend school later in the day. Within a few years, Booker was taken in as a houseboy by a wealthy towns-woman who further encouraged his longing to learn. At age 16, he walked much of the 500 miles back to Virginia to enroll in a new school for black students. He knew that even poor students could get an education at Hampton Institute, paying their way by working. The head teacher was suspicious of his country ways and ragged clothes. She admitted him only after he had cleaned a room to her satisfaction.
In one respect he had come full circle, back to earning his living by menial tasks. Yet his entrance to Hampton led him away from a life of forced labor for good. He became an instructor there. Later, as principal and guiding force behind Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, which he founded in 1881, he became recognized as the nation's foremost black educator.
Washington the public figure often invoked his own past to illustrate his belief in the dignity of work. "There was no period of my life that was devoted to play," Washington once wrote. "From the time that I can remember anything, almost everyday of my life has been occupied in some kind of labor." This concept of self-reliance born of hard work was the cornerstone of Washington's social philosophy.
As one of the most influential black men of his time, Washington was not without his critics. Many charged that his conservative approach undermined the quest for racial equality. "In all things purely social we can be as separate as the fingers," he proposed to a biracial audience in his 1895 Atlanta Compromise address, "yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress." In part, his methods arose for his need for support from powerful whites, some of them former slave owners. It is now known, however, that Washington secretly funded anti segregationist activities. He never wavered in his belief in freedom: "From some things that I have said one may get the idea that some of the slaves did not want freedom. This is not true. I have never seen one who did not want to be free, or one who would return to slavery."
By the last years of his life, Washington had moved away from many of his accommodationist policies. Speaking out with a new frankness, Washington attacked racism. In 1915 he joined ranks with former critics to protest the stereotypical portrayal of blacks in a new movie, "Birth of a Nation." Some months later he died at age 59. A man who overcame near-impossible odds himself, Booker T. Washington is best remembered for helping black Americans rise up from the economic slavery that held them down long after they were legally free citizens.
With the outbreak of the Civil War he offered his services, and his assignments included: adjutant general of Indiana (April 1861); colonel, 11th Indiana (April 25, 1861); colonel, 11th Indiana (reorganized August 31, 1861); brigadier general, USV (September 3, 1861); commanding 3rd Division, District of Cairo, Department of the Missouri (February 14-17, 1862); major general, USV (March 21, 1862); commanding 3rd Division, Army of the Tennessee (February 17-June 1862); commanding 8th Corps, Middle Department (March 22, 1864-February 1,1865 and April 19-August 1, 1865); and also commanding the department (March 22, 1864-February 1,1865 and April 19-June 27, 1865).
His career got off to a promising start when he routed an inferior Confederate force at Romney, Virginia. Promoted to brigadier general, he was given charge of a newly organized division in the midst of the operations against Fort Donelson and was soon rewarded with a second star. However, that spring his reputation plummeted after the battle of Shiloh. On the first day his division was stationed north of the main army at Crump's Landing, and a series of contradictory orders from Grant forced him to countermarch his command and delayed his arrival on the main battlefield until the fighting was nearly over. He redeemed himself on the second day, but a scapegoat was needed for the near disaster the day before and this was Wallace. Sent home to await further orders, he offered his services to Indiana Governor Oliver P. Morton and, despite his high rank, took temporary command of a regiment during the emergency posed by Kirby Smith's invasion of Kentucky. With Cincinnati threatened, Wallace was placed in charge of a mostly civilian defense force. Through a show of tremendous energy he was able to save the city without a major fight. He was then head of the commission which examined Buell's handling of the invasion and other boards until placed in charge in Maryland in early 1864. There he bought valuable time for the defenders of Washington during Early's drive into the state when he made a stand at Monocacy with an inferior scratch force.
At the close of the war he sat on the court-martial which tried the Lincoln conspirators and presided over that which sent Andersonville chief Henry Wirz to the gallows. He then joined a movement to aid the Juarez forces against Maximilian in Mexico. He tried to raise money and troops and even accepted the title of major general from the Juarez group. On November 30, 1865, he resigned from the U.S. service, but his Mexican venture collapsed and he realized little of the money which he had hoped to gain from it. In later years he was governor of the New Mexico Territory and a diplomat to Turkey. As a prolific writer, who often drew upon his own experiences, he is best remembered for Ben Hur.- A Tale of the Cbrist, one of the most popular novels of the nineteenth century.
Voltaire, assumed name of François Marie Arouet (1694-1778), French
writer and philosopher, who was one of the leaders
of the Enlightenment.
Voltaire was born in Paris, November 21, 1694, the son of a notary. He was
educated by the Jesuits at the College Louis-le-Grand.
Voltaire quickly chose literature as a career. He began moving in
aristocratic circles and soon became known in Paris salons as a brilliant
and sarcastic wit. A number of his writings, particularly a lampoon
accusing the French regent Philippe II, duc d'Orléans of heinous crimes,
resulted in his imprisonment in the Bastille. During his 11-month
detention, Voltaire completed his first tragedy, (Edipe, which was based
upon thr (Edipus tyrannus of ancient Greek Dramatist Sophocles, and
commenced an epic poem on Henry IV of France. (Edipe was given its initial
performance at the Théâtre-Français in 1718 and received with great
enthusiasm. The work on Henry IV was printed anonymously in Geneva under
the title of Poème de la ligue (Poem of the League, 1723). In his first
philosophical poem, Le pour et le contre (For and Against), Voltaire gave
eloquent expression to both his anti-Christian views and his rationalist,
The novels of Russia's greatest writer, Leo Tolstoi, captured
the vastness of the Russian landscape and the complexity of its
people. His social and moral ideals spread to all parts of the world. His
massive `War and Peace' is regarded as a milestone in the development of
the Western novel.
Jonathan Swift was born on November 30, 1667 in Dublin, Ireland, the
son of Protestant Anglo-Irish parents: his ancestors
had been Royalists, and all his life he would be a High-Churchman. His
father, also Jonathan, died a few months before he was born, upon which
his mother, Abigail, returned to England, leaving her son behind, in the
care of relatives. In 1673, at the age of six, Swift began his education
at Kilkenny Grammar School, which was, at the time, the best in Ireland.
Between 1682 and 1686 he attended, and graduated from, Trinity College in
Dublin, though he was not, apparently, an exemplary student.
In 1688 William of Orange invaded England, initiating the Glorious
Revolution: with Dublin in political turmoil, Trinity College was closed,
and an ambitious Swift took the opportunity to go to England, where he
hoped to gain preferment in the Anglican Church. In England, in 1689, he
became secretary to Sir William Temple, a diplomat and man of letters, at
Moor Park in Surrey. There Swift read extensively in his patron's library,
and met Esther Johnson, who would become his "Stella," and it was there,
too, that he began to suffer from Meniere's Disease, a disturbance of the
inner ear which produces nausea and vertigo, and which was little
understood in Swift's day. In 1690, at the advice of his doctors, Swift
returned to Ireland, but the following year he was back with Temple in
England. He visited Oxford in 1691: in 1692, with Temple's assistance, he
received an M. A. degree from that University, and published his first
poem: on reading it, John Dryden, a distant relation, is said to have
remarked "Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet."
Novelist and poet Sir Walter Scott was born in 1771 in Edinburgh, one of six surviving infants from twelve. At eighteen months he took ill with poliomyelitis but pulled through although with a lame right leg. He was well educated, studying at Edinburgh University. In 1792 he was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates, becoming Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire from 1799 and Principal Clerk to the Court of Session from 1806. He was married in 1797 to French Charlotte Charpentier, who bore him four children. Fired by the tales and poems he heard as a child recuperating from his illness at his grandfather’s farm, Scott’s first love was literature and writing. His first works were the fusing and re-working of traditional tales and ballads. Soon this developed into a new form of writing, bringing history into romantic adventures. He produced contemporary works on the history of Scotland, Napoleon, France and past writers. He lived very expensively with a house in Edinburgh on Castle Street during court term and another in the country, Abbotsford, near Melrose, which he purchased in 1812 and had rebuilt, with extensions to his land also. With income from his legal work, his writing and shares in his publishing and printing companies, his life went well until January 1826 and a collapse of the economy. There was no limited liability at that time and he found himself with debts from his businesses of £120,000. Rather than declare bankruptcy he began an unbearably tough work regime to pay his creditors. Then, the following May, his wife died. From 1830 he worked through four strokes before dying in September 1832. Scott’s work has moved in and out of fashion and he has even been criticized for writing about history while the American and Industrial Revolutions were occurring. He explained his need to write tales set in historical Scotland because he was aware of his country ‘daily melting and dissolving into those of her sister and ally’. In his work he tried to capture the essence of an earlier, still independent and proud Scotland. It is a mark of his writing ability that the world’s ‘shortbread tin lid’ perception of Scotland descends entirely from his works of fiction in images today’s historians cannot hope to correct.
Rudyard Kipling, born in Bombay, India, on December 30, 1865, made a significant contribution to English Literaturein various genres including poetry, short story and novel. His birth took place in an affluent family with his father holding the post of Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the Bombay School of Art and his mother coming from a family of accomplished women. He spent his early childhood in India where an ‘aya’ took care of him and where under her influence he came in direct contact with the Indian culture and traditions. His parents decided to send him to England for education and so at the young age of five he started living in England with Madam Rosa, the landlady of the lodge he lived in, where for the next six years he lived a life of misery due to the mistreatment - beatings and general victimization - he faced there. Due to this sudden change in environment and the evil treatment he received, he suffered from insomnia for the rest of his life. This played an important part in his literary imagination (Sandison A.G.). His parents removed him from the rigidly Calvinistic foster home and placed him in a private school at the age of twelve. The English schoolboy code of honor and duty deeply affected his views in later life, especially when it involved loyalty to a group or a team.
Returning to India in 1882 he worked as a newspaper reporter and a part-time writer and this helped him to gain a rich experience of colonial life which he later presented in his stories and poems (Martinez, Gabriel A.). In 1886 he published his first volume of poetry, ‘Departmental Ditties’ and between 1887 and 1889 he published six volumes of short stories set in and concerned with the India he had come to know and love so well. When he returned to England he found himself already recognized and acclaimed as a brilliant writer. Over the immediately following years he published some of his most exquisite works including his most acclaimed poem "Recessional" and most famed novel "Kim". In 1907 Kipling won the Nobel prize in literature in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterized his writings. Death of both his children, Josephine and John, deeply affected his life. Both these incidents left a profound impression on his life, which his works published in the subsequent years after their deaths displays. Between 1919 and 1932 he traveled intermittently, and continued to publish stories, poems, sketches and historical works though his output dwindled. As he grew older his works display his preoccupation with physical and psychological strain, breakdown, and recovery. In 1936, plagued by illness, he passed away into the world beyond, leaving behind a legacy that will live for centuries to come.
Kipling’s works span over five decades, with Tennyson and Browning still writing and Hardy and Yeats unheard of, when his first work Schoolboy Lyrics hit the press (Page, Norman). He wrote during the period now known as the Victorian Age. According to English and Western Literature, conservatism, optimism and self-assurance marked the poetry of this age. Though Kipling’s works achieved literary fame during his early years, as he grew older his woks faced enormous amount of literary criticism. His poems dealt with racial and imperialistic topics which attracted a lot of critics. Critics also condemned the fact that unlike the popular model of poetry, Kipling’ poetry did not have an underlying meaning to it and that interpreting it required no more than one reading. Maguills Critical Survey of Poetry indicates that some critics even attributed the qualities of coarseness and crudeness to his poetry. As Kipling grew older his poetry came under even more scrutiny and doubts began to arise about poetic abilities. These views of the critics come as a surprise due to the fact that even in face of his dwindling reputation in literary circles, his popularity among the masses persisted without change. In fact due to his ability to relate to the layman as well as the literary elite through his works, he joined a select group of authors who reached a worldwide audience of considerable diversity. Kipling’s reputation started a revival course after T.S.Eliot’s essay on his poetic works where Eliot describes Kipling’s verse as "great verse" that sometimes unintentionally changes into poetry. Following Eliot’s lead many other critics reanalyzed Kipling’s verse and revived his poetic reputation to the merited level. In his lifetime Kipling went from the unofficial Poet Laureate of Great Britan to one of the most denounced poet in English Literary History. In contrast to the path his reputation took, Rudyard Kipling improved as a poet as his career matured and by the time of his death Kipling had compiled one of the most diverse collection of poetry in English Literature.
Because schools in Arkansas offered blacks no education beyond the 8th grade, Johnson’s mother, a widow, saved for two years in order to move her family to Chicago so that her son could continue his high school education. There, he became an honor student and served as class and student council president and edited the school newspaper and yearbook. While attending the University of Chicago at night, Johnson spent his days as an office boy with a life insurance company. It was here that he devised the idea of a magazine for a black readership. Negro Digest, first published in 1942, was financed originally with $500 his seamstress mother raised by pawning their furniture. In less than a year, circulation was up to 50,000. Johnson now controls the nation’s largest black-owned company, which has revenues in excess of $140 million. He is publisher of Ebony, Jet, and EM, plus, Johnson engages in other businesses, including Fashion Fair Cosmetics, Ebone Cosmetics, Supreme Beauty products and three radio stations.
English historian and scholar, the supreme historian of the Enlightment,
who is best known as the author of the monumental
THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, often considered as the greatest
historical work written in English. "It was at Rome... as I sat musing
amidst the ruins of the Capitol, while barefoot friars were singing
vespers in the Temple of Jupiter, that the idea of writing the decline and
fall of the city first started to my mind." However, Gibbon's first works
were written in French.
Edward Gibbon was born in London into a prosperous family. He was a sickly
child and his education at Westminster and at Magdalen College, Oxford,
was irregular. Gibbon was expelled from Magdalen College for turning into
Roman Catholism. sent in 1753 by his father to Lausanne, Switzerland,
where he boarded with a Calvinist pastor and rejoined the Anglican fold.
In Lausanne he fell in love with Suzanne Curchod. Their relationship was
ended by his father and Gibbon remained unmarried for the rest of his
From 1759 to 1762 Gibbon hold a commission in the Hampshire militia,
reachinf the rank of colonel. In 1764 he visited Rome and was inspired to
write the history of the city from the death of Marcus Aurelius to the
year 1453. After his father died Gibbon ound himself in some difficulties,
but he was able to settle in London to proceed with his great work. The
first volume appeared in 1776, with public reaction to Gibbon's ironical
treatment of the rise of Christianity. Between 1774 and 1783 he sat in the
House of Commons, and become a lord commissioner of trade and
plantations. In 1774 he was elected to Dr Johnson's Club. From 1783 Gibbon
spent much of his time in Lausanne and in England with Lord Sheffield
(John Baker Holroy) in his Sussex and his London House. Lord Sheffield
prepared later Gibbon's MEMOIRS OF MY LIFE AND WRITINGS for publication
(1796) and MISCELLANEOUS WORKS (1796).
1856-1928), The leading black American journalist of the late 19th century. The son of slaves, Fortune attended a Freedmen's Bureau school for a time after the Civil War and eventually became a compositor for a black newspaper in Washington, D.C. Moving to New York City about 1880, he soon began a career in journalism as editor and publisher of a newspaper first called the New York Globe (1882-84), then the New York Freeman (1884-87), and finally the New York Age, editing the latter (with interruptions) from 1887 until he sold it in 1907. In his well-known editorials in the Age, Fortune defended the civil rights of both Northern and Southern blacks and spoke out against racial discrimination and segregation. He also wrote the book Black and White (1884), in which he condemned the exploitation of black labour by both agriculture and industry in the post-Reconstruction South. Fortune was the chief founder in 1890 of the Afro-American League, which, though it collapsed in 1893, was an important forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Though always a militant defender of black rights, Fortune had by 1900 allied himself with the more moderate Booker T. Washington, a move that would eventually compromise Fortune's reputation and lead to a decline in his influence. From 1923 until his death he edited the Negro World, the journalistic organ of the movement led by Marcus Garvey.
Doyle was born in Edinburgh in 1859. He was raised in the
Roman Catholic faith. While Doyle was training to become
a doctor he started to read Darwin, Spencer, and Huxley. Their writings
and his own disenchantment with religion caused him to become an agnostic.
In 1887 at the age of 28, Doyle became interested in the possibility of
Thought Transference. Working with a friend who was an architect he wanted
to see if it was possible to transmit diagrams back and forth. Doyle later
wrote he had shown beyond any doubt he was able to convey his thoughts
without words. Once Doyle was convinced thought transference was possible between living
beings he started to become interested in investigating the possibility of
messages being transmitted in a similar way from the world beyond.
In the late 1800's Table Turnings were very popular and Doyle attended a
large number. One of the most remarkable physical mediums of the day was
Daniel Douglas Home (a fellow Scotsman) and Doyle managed to sit with him
several times. This was the time in Doyle's life that he became interested
in mysticism, which he later replaced with Spiritualist beliefs.
CARLO COLLODI is the pen-name of CARLO LORENZINI (1826-90). Collodi is the name of the little village in Tuscany where his mother was born. He was born in Florence, the son of a cook and a servant, and spent his chilhood as much in the rough and tumble of the streets of his native Florence as in the classroom. No doubt this stood him in good stead in his two periods as a soldier - once in 1848 when Tuscany rose in revolt against its Habsburg rulers, and again in the war between Italy and Austria in1859. Collodi starded his writing career as a newspaperman: he wrote for other papers, and also started his own satirical paper Il Lampione (The Lanter) - but the government closed it down. Later he became a government official himself, working as a civil servant for the education department and trying to push through much-needed educational reforms. In the 1850s, he began to have a variety of both fiction and non-fiction books published. Once, he translated some French fairy-tales so well that he was asked whether he would like to write some of his own. The result was his fist major success, Giannettino, which is a kind of educational fairly- tale. He now devoted himself to writing for children" becouse adults are too hard to please"! In 1881, he sent to a friend, who edited a newspaper in Rome, a short episode in the life of a wooden puppet, wondering whether the editor would be interested in publishing this "bit of foolishness" in his children's section. The editor did, and the children loved it. The adventures of Pinocchio were serialized in the paper in 1881-2, and then published in 1883 with huge success. The fist English-language version was just as successful on its publication in 1892. The 1940 Walt Disney cartoon has ensured that the character of Pinocchio remains familiar: but the book is far richer in the details of the adventures of the naughty puppet in search of boyhood.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born in Florida, Missouri on
November 30, 1835, one of six children. When Samuel was
four, his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri a little town on the west
bank of the Mississippi River. His father, John Marshall Clemens, was a
freethinker, a persuasion not at all uncommon in the Midwest of that
period. He is also said to have been stern and puritanical, and was not
Samuel's favorite parent. One of Samuel's biographers, Edward Wagenknecht,
declares that his temperament was inherited from his mother, Jane Lampton
Clemens, who was conventionally religious, but not fanatically.
After his father died, Clemens left school at the age of fourteen and
became apprenticed as a printer, but soon decided that what he really
wanted to do was to become a river pilot, and he set about "the stupendous
task of learning the twelve hundred miles of the Mississippi River between
St. Louis and New Orleans -- of knowing it as exactly and unfailingly,
even in the dark, as one knows the way to his own features." He followed
this career from 1857 to 1861, a brief period in his young life. However,
his experiences as a river pilot, as well as his boyhood life in Hannibal,
provided much of the raw material for his subsequent literary work. His
pseudonym was, as everyone knows, the call of a Mississippi steamer's
"leadsman" when a depth of two fathoms had been sounded.
His writing career began in 1862 as a newspaper journalist, and his gift
for humorous writing was soon recognized. His earliest literary mentors
were Artemus Ward and Bret Harte. The piece that first made him famous was
"The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." He went on, however, to
much more substantial writings, including Tom Sawyer,
Huckleberry Finn, A Tramp Abroad, The Prince and the Pauper,
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, The Tragedy of
Pudd'n Head Wilson, The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg, and
The Mysterious Stranger. His book, The Gilded Age, bequeathed
its name on late nineteenth century America. One of his biographers,
Justin Kaplan, expresses the view that Mark Twain "had probably the most
richly endowed natural talent in American literature." He was a life-
Black newspapers did not attain commercial success until Robert S. Abbott founded the Chicago Defender in 1905. Capitalizing on the sensationalist techniques developed by William Randolph Hearst, Abbott designed the Defender as a paper for the masses. Abbott initially avoided politics, but the paper came into its own when he concentrated on muckraking stories about the black community. By 1920, the Defender had a circulation of 283,571. Chicago Defender was founded in 1905 by Robert S. Abbott on May 5. Abbot was a graduate of Hampton Institute in Virginia and Kent School of Law in Chicago. Forbidden to practice law because of racial discrimination, Mr. Abbott turned to the skill he had learned at Hampton printing. With 25 dollars, a table and a typewriter, he began publishing the Chicago Defender from his kitchen. In its original concept, the Chicago Defender was a weekly publication. Over the years, the influence and the circulation of the Defender grew. It was one of the first African American newspapers in this country to reach a circulation of more than 100,000. During the era classified by the historians as the "Great Migration," 19 15 to 1948, the Chicago Defender and Mr. Abbott played a major role. Using its pages, Mr. Abbott was able to influence more than 50,000 African Americans to leave southern states and come to Chicago, where the opportunities for employment, education and personal freedom were immensely greater. On February 4, 1956, Mt. Abbott's nephew, John H. Sengstacke founded the Chicago Daily Defender. This publication grew to become the largest Afri can American daily in the country. Continuing the work of his uncle, he used the Defender to help "improve the quality of life" for all Americans. He was directly involved in the desegregation of the U. S. armed forces. He also worked closely with President Franklin D. Roosevelt to create jobs in the United States Postal Service for African Americans. The Chicago Daily Defender today is a newspaper that brings readers world wide coverage of news, excellent features and a myriad of other sections which compose the modern publication. The Defender does not limit its news columns to African American subjects. Instead, it covers the full spectrum of news. But of course, its major audience is the African American market and its purpose is to fulfill l the African American need for a publication dedicated to this cause.
Francis Bellamy (1855 - 1931), a Baptist minister, wrote the original Pledge in August 1892. He was a Christian Socialist. In his Pledge, he is expressing the ideas of his first cousin, Edward Bellamy, author of the American socialist utopian novels, Looking Backward (1888) and Equality (1897). Francis Bellamy in his sermons and lectures and Edward Bellamy in his novels and articles described in detail how the middle class could create a planned economy with political, social and economic equality for all. The government would run a peace time economy similar to our present military industrial complex. The Pledge was published in the September 8th issue of The Youth's Companion, the leading family magazine and the Reader's Digest of its day. Its owner and editor, Daniel Ford, had hired Francis in 1891 as his assistant when Francis was pressured into leaving his baptist church in Boston because of his socialist sermons. As a member of his congregation, Ford had enjoyed Francis's sermons. Ford later founded the liberal and often controversial Ford Hall Forum, located in downtown Boston. In 1892 Francis Bellamy was also a chairman of a committee of state superintendents of education in the National Education Association. As its chairman, he prepared the program for the public schools' quadricentennial celebration for Columbus Day in 1892. He structured this public school program around a flag raising ceremony and a flag salute - his 'Pledge of Allegiance.' His original Pledge read as follows: 'I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.' He considered placing the word, 'equality,' in his Pledge, but knew that the state superintendents of education on his committee were against equality for women and African Americans.